Main goals of the Laboratory: Characterization of abiotic ecosystem components (dissolved oxygen, major nutrients, total inorganic carbon and its components) in biological research; studying of transfer and transformation processes of nutrients in the World Ocean (English language).

Laboratory researches and develops remote sensing technologies vehicles, sonar, video and radiometric methods (Russian,English languages).

The Caspian Branch of the P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology carries out scientific researches on the topic "Peculiarities of the environmental and biotic conditions on the Caspian Sea shelf in the areas of the current and oncoming extraction of hydrocarbon resources.

Starting from 80-90th the researchers of the Atlantic Branch of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Russian Academy of Sciences (ABIORAS), Department of the Experimental Hydrophysical Investigations, started to work actively in the coastal zone and inner marine waters of the Baltic Sea - Vistula and Curonian lagoons as well as river mouths in the South-East Baltic. 1998- the Laboratory for Coastal Systems Study was organized by initiative of Dr. Vadim Рака, the acting director of the ABIORAS. Dr. Boris Chubarenko was assigned as a head of the Laboratory (English language).

K. A. Korotenko(*), A.V. Sentchev(**), F.G. Schmitt(***)
(*) Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow, Russia
(**) Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences, CNRS UMR 8187, Wimereux, France
(***) Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences, UMR8187, CNRS, Wimereux, France
along with the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France).
(English language)

Лаборатория экологии Южного отделения Института океанологии им. П.П. Ширшова РАН  была создана в августе 1997 года. Организатором и долгое время бессменным руководителем был д.г.н. Николай Васильевич Есин. Основная цель создания лаборатории экологии состояла в изучении экологических и геоэкологических процессов в настоящее время и в далеком прошлом. В числе отдельных задач было изучение глобального загрязнения Черного и Азовского морей, воздействие гляциоэвстатических колебаний уровня Мирового океана на животный и растительный мир и рельеф Земли, формирование на земной поверхности водоемов, типа моря-озера Паратетис, формирование проливов Босфор, Дарданеллы, Маныч и их воздействие на мировую цивилизацию (Russian language).

Coastal benthos ecology laboratory/ Head Dr. V. O. Mokievsky. Established in 1983 as Laboratory of ecology and aquaculture of macrophytes. In 1997 transformed to Laboratory of coastal benthos ecology. Field of research: taxonomy, ecology and distribution of macrophytes, microphytobenthos, meiobenthos, macrobenthos. Structure and dynamics of coastal zone benthic communities (English language).

The laboratory arrived in 2006 from the Sediment Dynamics Group within Department of Experimental Hydrophysics Study. The main scientific theme is sediment systems in the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the influence of late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic cycles (Russian, English languages).

The main directions of the research: development of methods for the determination of trace elements in the water and sediments; investigation of the sulfur forms in the sulfidic water; the isotope composition of sulfur, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in water basins with anaerobic conditions; mathematical modeling of biohydrochemical processes; geochemistry of sedimentation and ore-forming processes in the oceans and seas; indicator role of trace elements in the ore-forming processes in the ocean; genesis of ferromanganese nodules and crusts in the oceans and seas (Russian, English languages).

Laboratory of paleogeodynamics (presently Laboratory of geodynamics and paleooceanology) was formed in 1978 and headed by outstanding scientist LP. Zonenshain who made significant contribution in plate tectonics theory. After his passing away in 1993 and until now the Laboratory is headed by B.V. Baranov. The investigations covered two main topics: processes along recent and ancient plate boundaries and paleogeodynamic reconstructions of oceans and continents. Laboratory team participated in scientific expeditions in Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, in Japan, Okhotsk and Bering seas. Geology and tectonics of the ocean bottom was studied; some investigations were conducted from "Pisces" and "Mir" manned submersibles. During past 38 years team personnel significantly changed and now it includes Group of Paleooceanology, headed by E.V. Ivanova (English languages).

Geographical discoveries P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS at the bottom of the ocean (Russian,English lessons)

Science topics of the laboratory has included a wide range of geoelectric problems: (1) development of new technologies for measuring variations of natural timevarying electromagnetic field in seas and oceans, (2) theoretical studies in the field of EM induction studies and development of numerical solutions of forward and inverse problems of geophysics in heterogeneous media and (3) constructing of geoelectric models of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle for various regions of the Earth (English language).

The Lab was set up in 1974 on academician RAS A.S. Monin’s initiative. The Lab’s founder and head (till 1998) was Professor, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics V.M. Kamenkovich, from 1998 the head is Doctor of Physics and Mathematics G.M. Reznik. Main line of inquiry of the Lab – theoretical description of large-, synoptic-, and meso-scale processes in the ocean and atmosphere which determine the Earth’s climat and weather (Russian, English languages).

The idea of the Interlaboratory young scientists group of molecular genetics is to provide a convenient and available space to meet the challenges that arise in the modern biooceanology using methods of molecular genetic. The group exists since 2014. We have all the basic equipment necessary for basic molecular genetic studies. Biodiversity research Objectives: systematics and phylogenetics; biogeography and phylogeography; evolutionary biology and developmental biology, population biology of aquatic species; introduced species: identification, origin, state of the population, ways of expansion (English languages).

In the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology aerosol studies were started in 1949 by A.P.Lisitzin [Lisitzin, 1955]. During more than 300 expeditions onboard research vessels of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology to all oceans and many seas huge material was obtained on distribution, composition and properties of aerosols in the marine boundary layer[Lisitzin,1955, 1996, 2011, 2014; Shevchenko, 2003; Klyuvitkin et al., 2004; Lukashin and Novigatsky, 2013] (Fig. 1). The results of these studies are compared and supplemented by published data of Russian and foreign scientists (English languages).

The St.-Petersburg Branch of the P.P.Shirshov, Laboratory of geophysical boundary: Venusian atmosphere general; climatic models of different; abstract continuum mechanics; wave dynamics modeling; geophysical dynamics (Russian, English languages)

Hot-spots of internal solitary waves in the Eurasian Arctic observed from space. Igor Kozlov*1, E. Zubkova1, V. Kudryavtsev1, A.Zimin2, A. Myasoedov1, B. Chapron3,1 - 1 Satellite Oceanography Laboratory, Russian State Hydrometeorological University, St. Petersburg, Russia 2 Institute of Oceanology RAS, St. Petersburg Branch, St. Petersburg, Russia 3 Laboratoire d'Océanographie Spatiale, Ifremer, Brest, France (English language)

Laboratory was organized in 1965 by V.G. Kort.The Laboratory performs measurements in the ocean, anylyzes and interprets the data, and works with the models. Head of Laboratory Eugene Morozov (Russian, English language).

Studying ocean hydro-system in relation with the atmosphere, in general and in regional waters, is of great fundamental and practical importance, but it is a difficult task that requires a systematic maintenance. The objective can be approached by means of: a) deployment of modern measurement network using contact and remote sensing on a grid, which is adequate to explore vast spatial and temporal scales of the hydrodynamic processes; b) creation of infrastructure for the collection, transmission and data storage; c) application of modern simulation models with data assimilation for the interpolation of field parameters to the desired grid in time and space (English language).

Base science directions of Laboratory: anomalies in intrasecular oscillations of climatic characteristics of the ocean and atmosphere in their interplay; numerical modeling of thermodynamic parameters of the upper active layer of the ocean; laboratory modeling of coherent dynamic structures; diagnosis of largescale hydrophysical ocean system (Russian, English language).

Laboratory of coastal zone sea lithodynamic was founded in May 1988 as a part of the Department of Coastal Research of the Southern Branch of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The main aim of the laboratory: creating a complete view about the mechanisms of the sediment suspended and transport in the water from the shoreline to the maritime boundary of the coastal zone (English language).

The Laboratory for Marine Ecology was formed from the research Group for Hydrobiology of Atlantic Branch IO RAS in 2009. The founder and leader of the Laboratory from the beginning till present time is Dr. Elena Ezhova. The team of 17 people joins - experts in algology, benthic study, phyto-and zooplankton, ichtiology, taxonomy, eco-physiology and hydrochemistry -6 PhD; -4 PhD students (English language).

Comprehensive investigations of Belugas in the native habitat, research of acoustic activity of Bearded Seals, ethologo-acoustic researches of Bottlenose Dolphins in native habitat, analysis and systematization of underwater signals of capture Belugas and Bottlenose dolphins, experimental studies of communicative abilities of Bottlenose dolphins (English language).

Laboratory for Marine Physics Atlantic Branch of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Russian Acadymy of Sciences (English language).

Laboratory of Marine Turbulence was established in 1968 on the initiative of great Russian scientists - academicians A.S.Monin and A.N.Kolmogorov. Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences R.Y Ozmidov was appointed Chief of the Laboratory, and he held this post for 30 years until 1998. The main objective of the Laboratory was experimental and theoretical study of small-scale three-dimensional turbulence (microstructure) and turbulent diffusion in the ocean. The Laboratory conducted more than twenty ocean expeditions which made possible to reveal the existence of a spatio-temporal intermittency of small-scale turbulence in the presence of stable stratification of ocean water. For the first time it was shown that stable stratification leads to a limitation of the maximum size of three-dimensional turbulent eddies, and the appropriate quantitative criterion was received (the famous Ozmidov scale). In the So-th the Lab also paid great attention to the study of finestructure processes in the ocean. From 199S to the present, the Laboratory headed by Professor Y.M.Zhurbas. During last two decades, the scientific themes of Laboratory have expanded to include, in addition to the microstructure and finestructure of the ocean, also numerical modeling and observation of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale ocean structures (quasi two-dimensional turbulence) (Russian,English language).

V.V.BULATOV, YU.V.VLADIMIROV (Institute for Problems in Mechanics Russian Academy of Sciences) (English language)

Mesoscale eddies from satellite altimetry: a problem of identification. Tatyana Belonenko, Saint Petersburg State University (English language).

Laboratory for Modeling of Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles (LMOBC), St. Petersburg Branch, P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS. LMOBC was created in 1998. From its inception to the present time it is headed by Dr. V.A. Ryabchenko. The main areas of research of LMOBC include: 1. The variability of biogeochemical cycles, including the carbon cycle, in the oceans and seas; 2. The spread of pollutants in the oceans, seas, lakes and estuaries; 3. The impact of climate change on marine ecosystems and eutrophication of the seas; 4. Development and improvement of the operational system of weather forecast and the state of water bodies of the North-West Russia (English language).

M. Emelianov (1), J. Font(1), A. Turiel (1), C. Millot (2), J. Solé (1), P.-M. Poulain (3), A. Julià (1) and M.-R. Vitrià (1); (1) Institut de Ciències del Mar– CSIC. Barcelona, Spain, (2) Laboratoire d’Océanographie et de Biogéochimie. La Seyne sur Mer, France, (3) Instituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy (English language)

Physics of non-linear evolution of ocean wave fields (surface, internal, capillary) and their mathematical description (English language).

The St.-Petersburg Department of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, laboratory of numerical experiments in ocean dynamics: Ocean Modelling of Regional Processes (English language).

Laboratory focuses on the following research topics: development of the fundamentals of ocean acoustics, theoretical and numerical modeling of sound propagation in the ocean, experiments on sound propagation in various hydrological conditions, acoustic tomography of the ocean, research and development of the underwater carriers for oceanographic acoustic equipment, research and development of the underwater acoustic tracking equipment, research of the internal waves dynamics in the ocean. Laboratory biennially organizes international schools for ocean acoustics named after L.M.Brekhovskik (Russian, English languages).

Laboratory of ocean benthic fauna - 70 years of deep-sea benthos research: fauna of ocean trenches (ultraabyssal/hadal fauna); “big face” of the ocean (large-scale patterns of benthos distribution); chemosynthesis-based fauna and communities (English languages).

Key tacks: ocean waters optical properties and their relationship with environmental factors; light fields in the ocean from natural and artificial light sources and their dependence on the optical properties of sea water (Russian, English language).

Main topics of activities: Evolution, Zoogeography and diversity of oceanic fish fauna Taxonomy and ecology offish fauna of underwater raises Reproduction and development of marine fishes Diversity and distribution of Arctic and tropical ichthyoplankton (English language).

Measurement & technology platform. Designed for the in situ calibration, troubleshooting and real-time testing of the new sensors and in-parallel measurement of hydrophysical parameters (English language).

Main research areas: fundamental issue of oil and gas formation and accumulation in the ocean floor; field surveys and theoretical studies of gas hydrates in aquatories; water and sediment testing for oil, gas and hydrate indication using geochemical (gas) and bitumen method; cataloguing oil and gas reserves in the World ocean (Enlish, Russian languages).

E.V. Ivanova and Paleooceanography Team. Fundamental paleoceanographic research in the World Ocean over the last 20 years (English, Russian languages).

The laboratory has 3 focus areas of studies: modern distribution of marine microfossils; biostratigraphy and age definition of marine sediments; paleoceanography.

Periodicity of the magmatic rock alteration and the oceanic lithocphere formation (Atlantic Branch of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Kaliningrad, Kharin G.S., Russian, English language)

Лаборатории физико-геологических исследований 50 лет. За прошедшие 50 лет сотрудники Лаборатории физико-геологических исследований опубликовали около 1000 научных работ, в том числе более 30 монографии. Защищено 25 кандидатских и 8 докторских диссертаций. В настоящее время Лаборатория активно работает по госзаданию, проектам фундаментальных исследований Президиума РАН, Отделения наук о Земле РАН и крупным грантам РНФ, РФФИ (Russian language).

Laboratory of the plankton communities structure and dynamics. Global bioresources and biogeography; ecosystems of Russian seas alarming processes; metagenomic; phylogeny and evolution; benthopelagic zone (English language).

The main research areas in late 1940-th – 1960-th: large-scale structure of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton communities; productivity of marine plankton communities; vertical distribution and daily migrations of zooplankton. (English language).

Polar lows present themselves as small-scale, short-living intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems that can be found over the ocean areas poleward off the main polar front. Polar Lows are the systems which usually have a horizontal scale of less than 1,000 km and exist for less than only a couple of days (English language).

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